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Event ID: 2152 Source: MSExchangeMTA

Source
Level
Description
A fatal database error occurred, the database recovery operation was not successful and manual correction will be required. Details can be found in the file: C:\exchsrvr\mtadata\.\MTACHECK.OUT\MTACHECK.LOG. Please contact Microsoft Technical Support. [DB Server MAIN BASE 1 14] (16)
Comments
 
This issue may occur if incorrect values exist for the location of the MTA database path in the registry. See ME324026 for more details.

As per Microsoft: "The Microsoft Exchange Server disk may be full or a disk error may have occurred. The message transfer agent (MTA) service will stop if the disk is full". See MSEX2K3DB for more details.
Even though the article ME249359 applies to Exchange 2000, it fixed my problem for Exchange 5.5.
As per Microsoft: "The MTA is attempting to perform an online MTACHECK during startup, and an existing Mtacheck.log file located in the \Exchsrvr\Mtadata\Mtacheck.out directory may be corrupt. Additionally, the MTA may fail to start if the Mtacheck.log file is marked as read-only. This flag should never be set by the MTA itself. ". As per ME169918 this problem has not been fixed yet.
In my case, it turns out that \mtadata\Db000001.dat was corrupt. Copy that file from the CD, make sure Read Only is turned off, and run mtacheck.exe.

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