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Event ID: 41 Source: disk

Source
Level
Description
The file system structure on the disk is corrupt and unusable. Please run the chkdsk utility on the device <device> with label "<label>".
Comments
 
As per Microsoft: "This behavior can occur if the NTFS volumes' Master File Table (MFT) is corrupted. The short and long file name pairs that are stored in the directory index record and the file names that are stored in the associated File Record Segment (FRS) contain case-sensitive characters that do not match.
NTFS supports case-sensitive (POSIX) file names, but Chkdsk does not check file names in case-sensitive mode.
For example, assume that the directory index record has a BADFILe.TXT entry but the FRS has a BADFILE.TXT entry for the file name. NTFS views this as being invalid or corrupted, but Chkdsk compares only the names and ignores the case. It does not make repairs.
To resolve this issue, back up the volume that contains the corrupted file(s) and exclude the corrupted file(s) from the backup job. Reformat the volume, and then restore from the backup". See ME246026 for more details.

See ME176646 for more details.
For Windows NT 4.0 the error may be caused by a bug. See ME161801.
I fixed this problem by running: chkdsk /F /R
Please see ME310841 for situations when "Under stressful I/O transactions, some of the cached data may not be written to the disk".
Microsoft says "To resolve this problem, obtain the latest service pack for Windows 2000".
They also provide a supported fix for NT.

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