We were getting this error alone, intermittently, on a Windows Server 2003 DC which was also running Exchange. Users were experiencing slowness using Outlook and accessing the server. Backup Exec would not complete backups. Per other online entries, I ran a hardware vendor disk check (all passed) and updated the drivers per ASUS website since it was an ASUS board. Shortly after updating the IDE/SCSI driver, Event ID 507, 509, and 510 were also thrown in addition to Event ID 508. I followed the instructions in this article (thanks to author Jon Stokes): EV100510
(How to install a new motherboard without reinstalling Windows), specifically under the section: "Bringing up Windows on new Hardware" to clean out old drivers, since this was a replacement motherboard. Per the article, run the following command:
"In Device Manager, enable Show Hidden Devices, and have a look in the various trees. You may be surprised at how much stuff is faded or ghosted out. Delete everything you recognize as a hardware device which is either faded or ghosted out, but leave USB devices alone (see note). Don't touch anything under "Non-Plug and Play Devices." There are also some media drivers in "Sound, video and game controllers" that you should leave alone in there. Be very sure that all you're removing is an actual ghosted hardware device, that you either have or have had, and not a Windows internal driver. The same applies to System Devices, though these are usually branded, so very easy to tell apart.
Note: USB devices are reinstalled on a per-root basis, so it is perfectly normal to see them more than once in any list with Device Manager in this mode."
Happy to say, no more error messages.