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Event ID: 1511 Source: Microsoft-Windows-User Profiles Service

Windows cannot find the local profile and is logging you on with a temporary profile. Changes you make to this profile will be lost when you log off.
According to ME940453, this behavior occurs because the account that you use to log on to the computer is a member of one or more of the following groups: Guests or Domain Guests. See the article for the suggested resolution.
In my case, the culprit was a Nvidia update driver. If under Users you have a map called UpdateusUser, you have (by updating a Nvidia driver) allowed to search for updates. Solution: uninstall driver update (Google for UpdateusUser to see how). You may check EV100529 (What is “UpdatusUser” Folder and How to Remove it from Windows Explorer?).

If you can't find driver in Control Panel, try to deactivate the service.
According to ME257580, this can occur if the server that hosts the roaming profile is not available or cannot be reached by the workstation.
See EV100119 (How to fix a corrupted user profile).
This applies only to Active Directory and New Roaming Profiles:

I just ran into this exact same problem: after setting up the profile path in Active Directory, the user recieves an error that they are using a temporary profile. This ultimatly had to do with the “profile path” I had entered “\\sbserver\usershares\%username%”.

The server will try to append and extension indicating the profile/windows version to the path, in my case it was “.V2? making the path “\\sbserver\usershares\john.V2?. Unfortunately, the user does not have permission to modify the “UserShares” folder so a temporary profile was used for that session. This can be resolved by adding a trailing backslash making the profile path a folder named “\\sbserver\usershares\john\.V2\”. To make thing more windows like, I ultimately made the profile path “\\sbserver\usershares\%username%\PROFILE” and windows translated this to “\\sbserver\usershares\john\PROFILE.V2?.

This applies to existing roaming profile that started acting up:

For roaming profiles that started acting up, you will be heading for more of an up hill battle: the profile can exist on multiple machines, and the server, and will replicate from machine to server to machine. You will want to rename the user profile folder on the server or current workstation as this is the current copy. From there, go to each and every workstation that has the profile in question log in, and rename it. Once the use logs in again, it will create a fresh new profile. Copy his documents, favorites, PSTs, and so on back into his new profile. Make sure to do this on all machines that have a copy of the profile, otherwise a login on the wrong machine could corrupt his profile again.

Workgroup/standalone computers:

This is usually due to a corrupt user profile, corrupt default profile, corrupt user account, file system, or windows problems. Start by renaming the profile and letting windows create a new profile. Copy back the users data. The second step is to rename the users profile directory, delete the user, create a new user, and copy the users data back.

A fatally corrupted file system can be causing user profile issues. Run a check disk and retry the proceeding steps. If that fails, windows could be to blame. But always give web searches a good try before blowing away Windows.

This problem occurs on Windows Vista if the current user's profile was accidentally deleted from the system. See ME947215 and ME947242 to solve this problem.

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